CIEMCR and ICCPR are important international human rights instruments. They have a common preamble and Article 1 that defines the right to self-determination. ICCPR primarily covers civil and political rights. The supervisory body is the Human Rights Committee. The Committee monitors the reports of States Parties to the Covenant and decisions on intergovernmental complaints. Persons who allege violations of their rights under the Covenant can also take legal action against states, provided that the state concerned is a party to the first optional protocol. As of March 2010, a total of 165 states were parties to the Covenant, 113 parties to the first optional protocol and 72 to the second optional protocol (see II1). C) Treaties and conventions are the compelling source of international law and are considered a “hard right.” Contracts can play the role of contracts between two or more parties, such as . B an extradition treaty or a defence pact. Treaties can also be legislation to regulate a particular aspect of international relations or to form the constitutions of international organizations. Whether or not all contracts can be considered sources of law, they are a source of commitment for the parties. Article 38, paragraph 1, point a), of the ICJ, which uses the term “international convention,” focuses on contracts as a source of contractual obligations, but also recognizes the possibility that a State will expressly accept the obligations of a contract to which it has not formally acceded. However, the principles of Estoppel and justice in the international context do not retain all the connotations they have under the common law.
The reference to the principles of “generality” means that, if adapted by communal law, the rules should be sufficient to include rules similar to those that exist in many local systems. The principles of local law should be seen as sources of inspiration and not as sources of direct application.  It is important to note that international humanitarian law (IHL) does not have an exception regime, as it is a law specifically designed to provide minimum protection in the event of armed conflict.